Starting in 1866, the Sanborn Map Company has produced fire insurance maps of approximately 12,000 U.S. cities and towns. These maps provide information on building footprints, building use (e.g., residential, commercial, etc.), building materials, number of stories per building, building height, street names and addresses, location of water mains and fire hydrants, etc.
Brandeis Library has a subscription to the Digital Sanborn Maps (1867-1970), which includes access to black & white Sanborn fire insurance maps for the entire United States. The Library of Congress also provides access to a number of Sanborn maps, including color-coded maps.