A citation is a reference to the source of specific information. It indicates to the reader where the information came from, and credits the original researcher or author.
Citing your sources helps validate your personal research and argument.
Plagiarism is when you use someone's work without indicating you've done so. It discredits you as a researcher, scholar, and student.
Citations are found in-text, at the bottom of the page (footnotes), or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Where your citations are found in your paper depend on the citation style specified by your professor or field.
APA, Chicago, and MLA are the primary citation styles used; however, there are many other styles. We cover the "how to" for the primary styles as well as several others.
This guide also covers citation management software that is supported by Brandeis (EndNote & Zotero), and suggests other management tools. You can also sign up for an appointment to learn more about Zotero or EndNote:
Need to get a quick citation? We recommend Zbib, a website that will generate citations <i>correctly</i> compared to other websites such as noodlebib or easybib. Zbib.org is owned and operated by Zotero, our recommended citation manager.
Before you begin: If you have Microsoft Word or LibreOffice open on your computer, we recommend you quit them before attempting to install Zotero.
1. Download and install Zotero 5.0 for Windows, Mac, or Linux. This installs both the Zotero application and the word processor plugin for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice.
2. Install the Zotero Connector for your web browser (Chrome, Firefox, Safari, or Edge). The plugin for Google Docs is currently built in to the Zotero Connector for Chrome and Firefox.
3. Register for a Zotero.org account. After you register, Zotero will send a confirmation email to the address provided. Open the email and click the link to confirm your registration.
5. Learn more about Word Processor Integrations for Microsoft Word, LibreOffice, and Google Docs to make the most of Zotero's citation functionality.