Geospatial data is data that includes a spatial component. The location information in geospatial data sets can be presented in the form of coordinates (e.g., latitude and longitude), street addresses, cities, zip codes, etc. Geospatial data can be used to create maps and analyze data in GIS.
There are two primary geospatial data models: vector and raster.
Image source: MIT OpenCourseWare
Some common file formats that work with GIS applications include: