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SOC 112b: Social Class and Social Inequality

Resources for the environmental justice presentation and paper for SOC 112b, taught by Prof. Karen Hansen in Fall 2022.

Think Tanks

"Think tank" refers to a policy institute or a research institute which conducts research on topics such as economics, political climate, military, social policy and culture.  Well-known political think tanks include:

Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)

Evaluating Grey Literature

Type of source Examples Purpose Authors Audience Publishers Note


Certain books; scientific/academic journals

To advance knowledge in an academic discipline

Researchers, professors, experts Academics, scientists, policymakers, students Scientific/academic publishers (may be commercial or nonprofit) Usually peer-reviewed
POPULAR News articles, magazines, op-ed pieces, some books To discuss current trends, events, ideas Journalists, politicians,  occasionally scholars General public Commercial publishers, newspapers, magazines Not peer-reviewed, but may go through an editorial process like fact-checking
GREY LITERATURE Issue briefs, policy papers, case studies, technical reports To further the mission of the organization that funded and/or published it Practitioners, experts, government workers, public relations staff Other practitioners, policymakers, donors, the public Usually the organization itself May be biased in favor of the mission of the organization


Evidence Synthesis

“Despite a wealth of research, accessing high quality evidence and making it readily available to policymakers and practitioners remains a challenge. Evidence synthesis is the process of bringing together information and knowledge from a range of sources to inform debates and decisions on policies, programming, and evidence generation.” 

UNICEF Office of Research-Innocenti. (2018, May 17). Evidence synthesis. UNICEF-IRC.