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International Justice

Guide from the International Center for Ethics, Justice, and Public Life at Brandeis.

International Courts & Tribunals

The following are the world’s major international courts, including dates established, with links to their websites:


Interstate dispute courts

International Court of Justice – The Hague, Netherlands (1946)

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea – Hamburg, Germany (1996)

World Trade Organization Appellate Body – Geneva, Switzerland (1995)


Courts of regional economic and political integration agreements

Court of Justice of the European Communities – Luxembourg (1952)

European Free Trade Area Court of Justice – Luxembourg (1994)

Court of Justice of the Andean Community – Quito, Ecuador (1979)

Caribbean Court of Justice – Port of Spain, Trinidad (2005)


Human rights courts

European Court of Human Rights – Strasbourg, France (1959)

Inter-American Court of Human Rights – San Jose, Costa Rica (1979)

African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights – Arusha, Tanzania (2004)


International criminal courts

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia – The Hague, Netherlands (1993)

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda – Arusha, Tanzania (1995)

International Criminal Court – The Hague, Netherlands (2003)

Special Court for Sierra Leone – Freetown, Sierra Leone (2002)

Extraordinary Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia – Phnom Penh, Cambodia (2003)