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Citing Sources

This guide provides an overview of citation management software offered at Brandeis, as well as information on print and online citation guides.

Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual of Style is the citation and writing style that is used most often in the soft social sciences, humanities, and some policy (philosophy, history, public policy, classics, and more). This style relies on endnotes or footnotes for in-text citations and is relied upon for providing the reader a large amount of context for each citation.

Want to read a quick overview? Check out the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide. Want to learn more? Check out our workshops page and sign up for or request a workshop about Chicago Manual of Style. 

Quick Chicago Overview

Chicago citations are split into three categories: 

  • The first time you cite a source
  • All other times you cite that same source
  • Bibliography entry

Each of these looks a little bit different! The first two are in-text citations that, in Chicago, are either footnotes or endnotes, depending on your preference.

The first time you cite an item it will have a long citation that almost looks like a bibliography entry! This is because Chicago is built to give the reader of your work the most amount of context possible when they come across a citation. All other times you cite that item you'll use a short citation that still has a fair amount of information.

At the end of your paper you'll have a full citation list, a bibliography!

For example...
If you're citing a book, your citations will be formatted like this: 


Footnote/Endnote first appearance:
First Last, Title (Publisher Location: Publisher, Year): Page #.

Footnote/Endnote subsequent appearance:
Last, Shortened Title, Page #.

Bibliography/Works Cited: 
Last, First. Title. Publisher Location: Publisher, Year.

Chicago Manuals at the Library and Online