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“Brandeis

Citing Sources

This guide provides an overview of citation management software offered at Brandeis, as well as information on print and online citation guides.

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style provides guidelines for writing and citing across many academic disciplines. Chicago-style citations come in two varieties:

  1. Notes and Bibliography: Uses footnotes or endnotes with a bibliography. Preferred by many in the humanities.
  2. Author-Date: Uses parenthetical in-text citations with a bibliography. More common in the sciences and social sciences.

Want a quick overview with examples? Check out the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide

Want to learn more? Sign up for a citation workshop, or request a workshop about Chicago Style. 

Quick overview: Chicago Notes and Bibliography format

Chicago citations are split into three categories: 

  • The first time you cite a source
  • All other times you cite that same source
  • Bibliography entry

Each of these looks a little bit different! The first two are in-text citations that, in Chicago, are either footnotes or endnotes, depending on your preference.

The first time you cite an item it will have a long citation that almost looks like a bibliography entry! This is because Chicago is built to give the reader of your work the most amount of context possible when they come across a citation. All other times you cite that item you'll use a short citation that still has a fair amount of information.

At the end of your paper you'll have a full citation list, a bibliography!

For example... If you're citing a book, your citations will be formatted like this: 

Footnote/Endnote first appearance:
First Last, Title (Publisher Location: Publisher, Year): Page #.

Footnote/Endnote subsequent appearance:
Last, Shortened Title, Page #.

Bibliography/Works Cited: 
Last, First. Title. Publisher Location: Publisher, Year.

Chicago manuals at the library and online